Causes, Prevention and Treatment


Anatomy of the Knee

Medial Collateral Ligament, MCL, Knee LigamentThe picture on the right is a front-on view of the bones, tendons and ligaments that make up the right knee. In the lower corner of the right hand side of the picture there is a ligament called the "Tibial Collateral Ligament." It is this ligament, most commonly referred to as the medial collateral ligament, which is damaged in a MCL injury.

The medial collateral ligament is a flat ligament on the inside (medial) of the knee that connects the tibia (lower leg bone) to the femur (thigh bone). The medial collateral ligament is very important in providing stability to the knee joint.

What is Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain?
As with any other sprain, a MCL injury is the result of excessive stretching or tearing of the ligament. The severity of the injury can range from a slight stretching to a complete rupture of the ligament.

What causes Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain?
By far the most common cause of medial collateral ligament sprain is a blow or sudden impact to the outside (lateral) of the knee joint. This causes the outside of the knee to collapse inward toward the midline of the body and the inside of the knee (where the medial collateral ligament is located) to widen and open up. This opening up stretches the ligament, which results in the injury.

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain?
The severity of the symptoms tends to correlate with the severity of the injury. In other words, the worse the injury, the worse the symptoms. The most common symptom of a MCL injury is pain around the inside of the knee joint. Also common is bruising, swelling and tendinous.

Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain Treatment
MCL injury is just like any other soft tissue injury and should be treated accordingly. This involves the application of R.I.C.E.R. (R) rest, (I) ice, (C) compression, (E) elevation and obtaining a (R) referral for appropriate medical treatment. The following two points are of most importance.

  1. Rest & Immobilization
    Once a MCL injury is diagnosed it is important that the affected area be rested immediately. Any further movement or stress will only aggravate the condition and prolong recovery. It is also important to keep the injured area as still as possible.
  2. Ice
    By far the most important part. The application of ice will have the greatest effect on reducing bleeding, swelling and pain. Apply ice as soon as possible after the injury has occurred or been diagnosed.

How do you apply ice? Crushed ice in a plastic bag is usually best. However, blocks of ice, commercial cold packs and bags of frozen peas will all do fine. Even cold water from a tap is better than nothing at all.

When using ice, be careful not to apply it directly to the skin. This can cause "ice burns" and further skin damage. Wrapping the ice in a damp towel generally provides the best protection for the skin.

How long, how often? This is the point where few people agree. Let me give you some figures to use, as a rough guide, and then I will give you some advice from personal experience. The most common recommendation is to apply ice for 20 minutes every 2 hours for the first 48 to 72 hours.

These figures are a good starting point, but remember they are only a guide. You must take into account that some people are more sensitive to cold than others are. Also, be aware that children and elderly people have a lower tolerance to ice and cold. Finally, people with circulatory problems are also more sensitive to ice. Remember to keep these things in mind when treating yourself or someone else with ice.

Personally, I recommend that people use their own judgment when applying ice to them self. For some people, 20 minutes is too much. For others, especially well conditioned athletes, they can leave ice on for up to an hour at a time. The individual should make the decision as to how long the ice should stay on.

My personal recommendation is that people should apply ice for as long as it is comfortable. Obviously, there will be a slight discomfort from the cold, but as soon as pain or excessive discomfort is experienced, it is time to remove the ice. It is much better to apply ice for 3 to 5 minutes a couple of time an hour, than not at all.

During the first 24 to 72 hours after an injury, be sure to avoid any form of heat at the injury site. This includes heat lamps, heat creams, spas, Jacuzzi’s and saunas. Avoid all movement and massage of the injured area. Also, avoid excessive alcohol. All these things will increase the bleeding, swelling and pain of your injury. Avoid them at all costs.

Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain Prevention
Although it is important to be able to treat MCL injury, prevention should be your first priority. So what are some of the things you can do to help prevent patellar tendonitis?

  1. Warm Up properly
    A good warm up is essential in getting the body ready for any activity. A well-structured warm up will prepare your heart, lungs, muscles, joints and your mind for strenuous activity. If you would like to know more about the warm up, visit
  2. Avoid activities that cause pain
    This is self-explanatory, but try to be aware of activities that cause pain or discomfort, and either avoid them or modify them.
  3. Rest and Recovery
    Rest is very important in helping the soft tissues of the body recover from strenuous activity. Be sure to allow adequate recovery time between workouts or training sessions.
  4. Balancing Exercises
    Any activity that challenges your ability to balance, and keep your balance, will help what is called, proprioception: – your body’s ability to know where its limbs are at any given time.
  5. Stretch and Strengthen
    To prevent MCL injury, it is important that the muscles around the knee be in top condition. Be sure to work on the strength and flexibility of all the muscle groups in the leg.
  6. Footwear
    Be aware of the importance of good footwear. A good pair of shoes will help to keep your knees stable, provide adequate cushioning, and support your knees and lower leg during the running or walking motion.
  7. Strapping
    Strapping, or taping can provide an added level of support and stability to weak or injured knees.

Brad Walker.